What is the non-specific defense system in the body?

Aug 21, 2023 by EMPWellness Admin


The first task of the immune system in protecting the body is to prevent the entry of microbes and foreign cells into the body. Now, if for any reason microbes and foreign cells can pass through the primary immune defense barrier and enter the body, the second defense layer of the immune system called non-specific defense is used.

What is a non-specific defense system?

The naming of this part of the immune system is due to the fact that the cells of this system are not developed to fight against a specific group of microbes and generally fight against all foreign cells including bacteria, fungi, viruses and other foreign cells. Meanwhile, the specific defense system specifically reacts to pathogenic agents and has the ability to identify and diagnose various types of pathogenic agents. Of course, it should be noted that the mucous and skin defense barriers can also be considered as a part of non-specific defense. In fact, the skin is the first part of the defense system that prevents pathogens from entering the body. Mucous surfaces, like the skin, prevent the entry of pathogens and fight pathogens with the help of specific and non-specific immune systems.



Features of the non-specific defense system:

It is inherent in the human body from birth, unlike the specific defense system that the body acquires over time. In fact, over time after exposure to internal and external pathogens, the specific immune system learns to fight that agent more easily and effectively the next time it is encountered, while the non-specific defense system gives a constant and similar response to all pathogens. . The non-specific defense system cannot remember the characteristics of a specific type of microbe; In contrast to the specific defense that, by producing memory cells, records the characteristics of the invading cell. Vaccines, with the controlled exposure of the specific system, teach it that if it encounters that agent, it can easily destroy it; But, vaccines have no effect on non-specific defense.




Most of the cells of this system have the property of phagocytosis. Cells that have xenophagous properties can take bacteria in and digest them, and if the invading cell is large, several xenophagous cells will attach to it and tear the cell wall until the cell disintegrates. Three important types of white blood cells (WBC) including neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are part of the cells of the non-specific defense system. According to the increase in the total number of white blood cells and changes in the number of the above cells, doctors can find out the presence of inflammation or infection in the body. The non-specific defense system quickly activates during skin injuries, which cause microbes to enter the body, and sends a call message to other immune cells.


Non-specific defense complement proteins:

Along with the non-specific defense system, non-specific defense complementary proteins or the complement system are active. These proteins may not be completely placed in specific or non-specific defense; Because these proteins play a role in both specific and non-specific defense. In fact, the response that non-specific defense complement proteins give to pathogens is a non-specific and immediate response; But, they also play a role in the production of antibodies that are part of the specific defense system. The way these proteins work is that after the activation of a series of biochemical reactions, various proteins are produced during these reactions. Each of these proteins has its own role and overall the activity of the complement system is very complex. Complementary proteins of non-specific defense can attract immune system cells to the site as a chemotaxis agent, they can destroy pathogenic cells by making holes in the cell membrane, and they can facilitate their eating by immune cells by binding to pathogenic cells.


If you have any questions about the non-specific defense system, you can ask your question in the comments section so that the doctors of the EMPWellness site can answer you.



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